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Programme TAHITI

Journal of Archibald Menzies, surgeon and botanist on board the Discovery under Captain George Vancouver, 1790-1794

 

Voyage to Tahiti 1791
ff 101- 164


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1791
Nov:
parts of the wood, but their sympathising condolence provd fatal to about a dozen of them which were shot in a short time without stirring from the foot of the same tree, till, at last finding their number decreasd so fast the two or three surviving ones went away with a pitiful noise seeming to bemoan the fate of their fellow companions.
In the evening we returnd again aboard the Discovery & found preparations were now making for leaving this place – I brought with me live plants of the Wisteria aromatica which were planted in the frame on the quarter deck.

10th             Early on the 10th we weighed anchor & the wind being scanty with the assistance of the boats ahead went out of the Harbour but came to again in 30 fathoms water near Parrot Island to wait for fair wind & the Chatham’s joining us . – After we came to an anchor Lt Baker was sent with a party of men & three boats to strike the Tent & bring it & the Brewing utensils on board I embracd the same opportunity to bring   several live plants among which was the New Zealand Flax plant with a view if they succeeded in the frames on board to carry them to his Majesty’s Gardens.
In the evening a Boat was sent into Facile Harbour where they found the Chatham preparing to come out & join us, which she attempted to do on the following day, but the weather proved so boisterous & squally that She was not able to accomplish it & was obliged to put back again. 

20th              The appearance of the weather on the 20th was no wise favorable. the Sky to the Southward appeard over cast with a rising bank of dark clouds seeming to portend a gale from that quarter & our situation in that event not being a very eligible one we     


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Nov:
were inducd to run into Facile Harbour where we anchord again in 30 fathoms & for further security steadied the ship with a Hawser to the trees on shore.

21st               On the 21st Capt. Vancouver was employd in sounding the entrance of the Harbour, which he found very favorable for Anchorage in case a Vessel was necessitated to run in for it in a gale of wind. A boat was likewise employd in watering & another in fishing, the latter was not long gone when she returnd with a sufficient quantity of fish for all the ship’s company. In the afternoon I went on shore & in a short time shot about a dozen and a half of the Poe birds without moving 20 yards from where I landed, these were dressd in a pie the next day & they were allowd by all who tasted to be the most delicate & savoury food we had yet used of the produce of this country.

Before our departure I will here offer some four observations on the country & its produce.
The Bay is interspersd with numerous Islands & various Inlets, affording an easy access into the country for about 30 miles, & is almost every where bound in by a rocky indented shore forming in some places over hanging precipices of considerable height & for the most part rising by a steep ascent to form exceeding high mountains whose craggy cliffs & dreary precipices are in a great measure hidden from the eye of the beholder & by a luxuriant covering of verdant woods even from high water to at least three fourths of their elevation, the summits of some appear coverd with a greenish Turf while others are seen naked barren & rocky apparently elevated beyond the powers of vegetation & those inland still


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Nov:
more remote & lofty are envelopd in perpetual snow, so that a prospect more wild & romantic than the general appearance of this country is seldom to be met with.
On the sides of these Mountains, the Soil is a light blackish mould of a soft spungy texture, evidently formd from decayd vegetables & every where coverd with a Carpet of Mosses that naturally preserves a warmth & moisture more favorable to the luxuriancy of its produce in many places, than the depth of the soil, but in the bottom of the vallies & on the low land which in a few places stretches out from the foot of the Mountains, the Soil is somewhat deeper & is intermixd with a redish friable earth that affords growth & nourishment to a very thick forest of trees & underwood, which would not fail to impede in a considerable degree the progress of cultivation, should a settlement ever be thought of in this remote region, as the clearing & preparing the ground would be a work of immense labor indeed the only inducement I can at present discover to such a design would be the establishing of a plantation of the New Zealand Flax which grows here spontaneous, & the variety of fine timber with which the country abounds, but these objects may no doubt be obtaind to greater advantage in a more northerly situation of the Island, where the Climate will be more favorable.
Facile Harbour on account of its easy access is the most eligible port in the whole Bay, as it is formd safe & capacious & surrounded with more low land than any other part, at the same time possessing the advantage of procuring with little trouble  every kind of refreshment which the Country affords.

                                                                                                                                    
The Climate appears temperate & healthy, though often exposd to the visitation of very strong gales of wind & frequently heavy rains, the natural consequences of a mountainous & woody country. During the latter part of our stay the weather was mild & pleasant, we generally had a gentle breeze of wind from the sea in the day time & calm at night, & the rise and fall of the Mercury in the Thermometer during the whole period averaged at about 62 o of Fareinheit’s Scale, Yet it may seem strange that in all our excursions we met with very few plants in flower & only two in seeds, the one was that which has obtaind the name of the supple Jack with red berries & the other apparently a Juniper with white berries – This evidently shows that the summer was but just set in & that the year here is markd only by two seasons summer & winter, for the Trees & Shrubs are mostly evergreen & shew very little change in their foliage or natural verdure throughout the year
As this place was found inhabited by several families when Capt Cook was here it may appear singular that we did not meet with any of the Natives in our various excursions – Indeed I am much afraid that his liberality towards them has been in some measure, the cause of this apparent depopulation by affording a pretext for war to a more powerful tribe, ambitions to possess the riches he left them which in all probability has ended in their total destruction, for if we except the few old huts we saw in & about Facile Harbour, we met with no other traces of them any where in the Sound, & these to all appearances were formd only for temporary shelter & bore no marks of being very recently inhabited.


1791
Nov 22nd
In the forenoon of the 22nd I went on shore & shot another parcel of Poe birds which were found equally good & relishing – The fishing boat likewise returnd successful, & the wind which was light & fluctuating about two in the afternoon settled at North, with which we both weighd anchor & after running out of the harbour by a narrow passage hoisted in the boats & made all the sale we could out of the Bay to gain a good offing before dark, which by six in the evening we so far effected that the West Cape of New Zealand bore East of us four Leagues & as it was intended to go round the South End of the Island we now shaped a south course, with all the Sail which a strong gale from the North West sufferd us to make – This gale continued augmenting in its course till it increasd to a most violent storm attended with dark hazy weather heavy rain & boisterous sea which broke incessantly over us & kept us wet & uncomfortable the whole night.

23rd.            The following morning brought us no alleviation to our hopes, on the contrary the dawn usherd in with the redoubled fury of a storm that had now reducd us to our foresail & obliged us to scud before it as our only expedient for safety.
At this time we were not a little alarmd at a sudden report of seven feet water in the hold. The Chain pumps were immediately set a going for the first time since we left England & all hands stood by to take their spell, when it was soon found to our great satisfaction that we gaind upon it & in a short time pumpd         

                                                                                                                             
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Nov:
all out.
As the day advanced we discovered we were separated from our Consort the Chatham, for she was not to be seen any where within our horizon from the Mast head.
In the forenoon the gale abated & the weather which was still dark & gloomy became more moderate so that we were able to make Sail again. In some part of this storm the Barometer was again so low as 29,,20 – At Eleven we saw land about five leagues to the Eastward of us – At this time we had vast flights of Blue Petrels some Albatrosses & a few Pintadoe Birds about us & at noon the observed Latitude was 40o 6” South when the above land bore N b E which we now found to be a cluster of seemingly barren Islands & picked insulated rocks consisting of about 7 or 8 in number & ranging nearly East & West about nine miles in extent, the largest is near the East end of the group & may be about two leagues in circumference, & of a height sufficient to be seen in clear weather eight or nine leagues off. As these were now considerd a new discovery, they were called the Snares, a name sufficiently applicable, to their lurking situation & appearance, & will we hope induce any Vesel bound this way to give them a good birth.
They are situated in the Latitude of 40° 3’S & in the Longitude of 166° 20’ East of Greenwich, so that no part of Capt Cook’s tract will be found within ten leagues of them, which will sufficiently account for his not seeing them when he passd round this end of New Zealand. We bore up on the outside of them at the distance of about six Miles, but it was so hazy that we coud not distinguish any signs of vegetation

1791 Nov:
upon them nor is it probable from their appearance there was any except upon the largest – they appear however to afford secure & inaccessible retreats to vast numbers of Oceanic Birds Seals & Penguins with which we were now surrounded.
In the afternoon, the breeze still continued fresh & the weather dark & cloudy. At four the Snares bore N30W six leagues off—From this time we pursued an easterly course for 25 leagues to shun the Traps, a Shoal & sunken rocks which lay off the South Point of New Zealand.

24th              On the 24th we had strong western breezes with dark cloudy weather & some rain. Early in the morning being well to the Eastward of the Traps, we shaped a North East course for Otaheite, & this day saw but few birds of any kind. Next day the Wind was North West with moderate & cloudy weather. In the morning we saw a small Parrakeet flying very feebly about the ship for some time, which I suppose had been driven off the land in the late storm – We also had white rumpd Albatrosses & a few Pintadoa Birds about us.

26th              On the 26th in the forenoon we had a long interval of Calm & the rest of the day we has light fluctuating breezes accompanied with showers of rain & dark hazy weather which prevented our getting any observations to ascertain our Latitude.
In the evening the appearance of the sky seemd to predict another gale, which at nine blew very fresh and squally from the North West, it was however of short duration & at midnight veerd round to South West – where it continued a fresh & steady breeze for the succeeding day.- Passed some Sea Weeds on

                                                                                                                                   
1791 Nov:
both days, but saw very few birds of any kind.
28th               The 28th a Bird was seen flying about the Ship with a quicker action of its wings then the generality of Oceanic Birds; it was about the size of a Raven & of a dark Brown colour with one oblique streak of white near the tip of each wing: I took it too be the Port Egmont Tan. - Saw likewise some Sea Weeds & had a fresh breeze from the North West with squalls & dark cloudy weather & a heavy swell from the Westward. The two following days the wind was chiefly from the Southward & South West, blew a pretty steady breeze with cloudy weather but fair & pleasant – On the latter we saw some more Port Egmont Tans.

Decr.1st          This & the following day the wind blew pretty fresh and squally from the South East with cloudy weather On the latter we saw several Whales & the sea was here & there coverd with a kind of sum which we supposd to be their sperm. We also saw some Albatrosses & a kind of grey Petrels & a great number of black birds with white bellies not quite so large as the Shear water which we had not seen before & could not say what they were as we had no opportunity to examine them.

3d.                  By the third having got to the Northward as far as the Latitude of 40 & in the longitude of 194.00E we steerd an Easterly Course for the three following days during which it blew a pretty fresh breeze from the southward & South West quarter & though the sky was generally overcast with dusky clouds, the Weather continued fair & pleasant we had Albatrosses & some Petrels  daily about us but not very numerous, but no Pintadoes.

7th              On the 7th we saw several Whales & had light variable airs of wind with a continuation of the same mild & pleasant weather. The two following


1791   
Decr.
days we had a light breeze from the Northward and North East quarter with        
which we stood to the Eastward in the Latitude of 37° ½ had at the same
time a heavy swell from the South west

10th               On the 10th, we had thick fog & drizzling rain, the wind continued moderate & still from the North East quarter with which we continued pursuing an easterly course tho’ we had now reach’d in that direction even beyond the meridian of our port, & was at least 20 degrees of the Latitude to the Southward of it, and as we conceived it very probable that the Chatham would make a more direct course for the Island, we now began to have no doubt but she would get to Otaheite before us provided no accident happened to her. The two following days we had the same thick foggy weather with small rain which on both days deprived us of a meridian Altitude to determine our Latitude – On the latter the wind veer’d so far round to the westward as to enable us to steer a northerly course. On the proceeding days we had a long rolling swell from the South West quarter, which indeed was most generally the case during this passage & would seem to indicate that the prevailing gales of wind in the high southern latitudes are in that direction.

13th               In the afternoon of the 13th one of the Men struck a porpus with a Harpoon & hauled it on board – It measured 4 feet in length, of which its mouth which projected long & narrow like a beak was 11 inches - Its body was thick & round towards the head, but very slender & flat towards the Tail – the Back is of a dusky blue colour & the Belly whitish – it had 40 teeth in each jaw regularly placd & sharp pointed. the eyes were very small & situated near the angles of the Mouth, the pupils of a greenish colour. the Spout hole was placed on the top of the head in a direct line over the eyes – It had two pectoral fins & one dorsal, the latter was of a

                                                                                                                
1791  
Dec:
triangular form & situated nearer the Tail than the head the Tail was horizontal & of  a similar figure.
It had a small Cuttle fish Sepia Octopodia & some live ascarides of about 2 inches long in the first ventricle but nothing in the second. It had no gall bladder but instead of it, the bile passed from the liver by a thick hepatic duct of two inches long into a strong cellular reservoir attachd to the outside of the duodenum which appeard very capacious in proportion to the other intestines & here it mixed with the food by a short & direct communication in considerable quantity - The cursory view I had of the inside of this reservoir it seemed to bear some resemblance to the strong muscular columellae of the inside of the heart & this structure may probably here answer to a similar purpose in forcing a quantity of bile by contractile power into the duodenum to assist the process of digestion.
The wind getting round to the Southward this day entirely dispersed the fog so that we again enjoyed clear and pleasant weather with a fair steady breeze this & the following day with which we stood to the Northward & made the best of it.      

15th              But on the 15th the wind veered again to the North East quarter & remaind pretty steady between North & North East for the five following days during which we continued making short tacks against it & moved our port little more than a degree of Latitude in that time – The night of the 10th proved squally with very heavy falls of rain loud claps of thunder and incessant lightning which we fondly hoped would  occasion a change of wind, but in this we were disappointed for the weather afterwards,


1791   
Dec:
continued unsettled dark & cloudy with frequent showers of rain & sometimes   lightning – On the 19th indeed it was observed that the surface of the sea was very smooth as if we were under the Lee of some land to the North Eastward of us , & though we had a considerable swell again on the following day from the northward, yet the idea of our being in the vicinity of some land was in some measure strengthend by seeing a small species of White Tern about the Ship which we had not before seen in any part of the passage

21st             On the proceeding evening the wind veered to the Southward & with this propitious breeze we now stood again to the Northward & in the course of the day saw some tropic birds & a number of the above Turns – in the dusk of the evening 7 or 8 of them approached the Ship several times trying to alight, till they were disturb’d from their purpose by the vessels motion, which evidently shewed that they were birds accustomd to perch at night, so consequently could not be any great distance from land.

22nd                Early in the morning of the 22nd Land was discoverd bearing North East by North about 16 leagues off, at this distance it made in two small hillocks with a piched rock a little detachd to the South East ward bearing some resemblance to a Vessel under Sail..We stood towards this land to have a clearer view of it & passed several patches of sea weed floating on the surface of the water which provd to be one of the varieties of the Fucus natans We also saw Terns – Tropic Birds (Phaeton melanarhynahos) but their number was very inconsiderable & the whole tribe of Albatrosses & Petrels had for some days past totally deserted us. In the forenoon the Sky became clear & serene and afforded us an excellent opportunity to take lunar observations 
                                                                                                               
1791      
Dec:
which was not neglected, & the mean of these carried on to the Island makes its Longitude 215° 57 east of Greenwich & its Latitude deduced from a Meridian Altitude of the Sun at Noon is – 27°36  South.
At noon we were within 6 leagues of the Island & as we approached nearer, it presented a most rugged appearance, for the Shore on the Western side rose here & there in high naked – perpendicular cliffs & precipices that in some places overhung their base & appeard to be composed of horizontal strata – the summits of these presented picked rocks & rugged shivers irregularly piled & forming broken ridges & deep chasms over the whole Island, which seemd to be about 6 or 7 leagues in circumference & a little more elevated towards the North & south ends than in the middle. Some detachd rocks were seen close to the shore in several places. The South end was of a height sufficient to be seen 15 leagues off , & resembled in its figure the perpendicular semi-section of a cone. Some appearances were also seen like fortified places upon the very summits of some of the hills considerably elevated, at one time five of these were in sight & each bore some resemblance to a large Clock tower, fenced round at a little distance with a high wall of stones or turf.
About 3 in the afternoon several Canoes were seen coming off from the Shore which convinced us that this dreary looking Island was inhabited & we now began to think that these strong-holds were no doubt what their appearance at first suggested to us – places of defence.
When we got within a league of the Shore we brought to for the Canoes to come up with us  


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Dec:
abreast of a small Bay on the North West side of the Island & though we had no Sounding with a hundred and eighty fathoms of line where we were, yet there was a likelihood of anchorage close in as there was no reef or any other apparent obstruction, & the shore round the Bay appeared sandy & was washd by a very moderate surf.
At first we found it a very difficult task to bring any of the Canoes along side of us with all the amiable signs and invitations we could think of – they appeard exceeding cautious & fearful & kept at some distance gazing on at us with seeming admiration & astonishment, the only returns they made to our entreaties were by pointing now & then with their paddles to the Shore, as if they meant us to go nearer or to land. At last one of the Canoes venturd so near to the Ship that a bunch of Beads & a few Iron Nails were thrown into her which seemd instantly to dispel their apprehensions & acted as a more powerful incentive than any other method made use of so that with a little more persuasion one of them came on board, who was soon followd by several others; & everything they saw struck them with so much novelty, that they could not fix their eyes or minds upon any one object for a single moment They moved about the Vessel taking little notice of us, & endeavouring to appropriate to themselves every thing they could lay their hands on, especially Iron, which metal they were more eager after then any thing else, so that it was often necessary to restrain them from pillaging us thus openly by main force, as they would not otherwise be prevaild upon to give up the booty which

                                                                                                       
1791    
Dec:
they had thus unlawfully acquird – The belaying pins on the quarter deck, the      hooks & eyes about the guns & rigging & everything about the Forge particularly attracted their roving eyes & hands which incessantly moved about with the utmost rapidity. One of them seeing an Anchor laying on the forecastle attempted to take it up with the same strength that he would apply to a piece of timber of an equal bulk & appeard much surprisd when he could not move it – examind round it to see where it was fastend to the deck. Another seeing himself reflected in a large mirror in the Cabin began making a yelling noise & dancing & capering before it for several minutes & seeing all his actions so well mimicked that he could not in any ways out do his imitator he approachd it with a blow which had not his hand been withheld would in a moment have brought down the whole fabric, but when he afterwards coolly felt the glass & found it a smooth solid surface, he then attempted to insinuate his hand behind it, imagining no doubt that the Buffooner must be standing at the back of it.
So much were their attentions & curiosities absorbed with everything they saw & so busy were they employd in this manner during their stay on board that it was with great difficulty we got them to count their numerals to ten, which we found to agree exactly with those of Otaheite, & a few other words which they repeated convincd us that they spoke a dialect of the same general language, but so modified from their local situation that even Tooworero could understand very little of what was said – This being the Case I think it is probable that Oparoo may not be the real name of the Island, though it was often their       


1791    answer to our interrogations on that head & therefore adopted.
Dec:
These natives are of a middling stature, stout & in general well proportiond & though of a dark brown complexion, yet their features varied in almost every instance appearing mild, open and full of vivacity – their temper seemd even & good naturd, at least it was not easily ruffled by any little disappointment they met with on board. They suffer their beards to grow long, but their hair which is naturally straight was cropped short round about the nape of the neck & their ear lobes perforated, though we saw them wear no ornaments in them excepting the nails they got from us. None of our visitors were in the least tatooed & this deviation from a custom so general among the natives of this Ocean may deserve particular notice.
The only cloathing they wore was a narrow slip of Cloth made from the bark of a tree which passed round their waist & between their legs, this cloth appeard to be a very scarce article amongst them as many of them had not sufficient of it to cover their nakedness, it was evident however that they generally wore something for that purpose, as some of them had bunches of the leaves of a species of Dracena suspended to a girdle round their middle for that intention.
Their Canoes were small & narrow but neatly formed, rising a little at each end to a sharp point with outriggers fitted to them -  Similar to the generality of Canoes in this Ocean. They had also double Canoes with Sails constructed in the same manner, & though we observed no wood or Timber on the Island of a size capable of making their canoes yet they did not seem

                                                                                                                          
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Dec:
to be a scarce article among the Natives, for at one time we counted no less than 30 canoes about the ship & between us & the Shore, eight or nine of them were double ones, each of which had upwards of 20 men, & few of the single Canoes had less than five men, many of them had more, so that we estimated the number of people that came off in the Canoes from this Bay to be about 300, & as there were no women children or very old people seen amongst them I think it may be safely inferrd that they were not one fifth of the Inhabitants of this little Valley, which from thence would amount to upwards of 1500. But I would not from this conclude that the Island is very numerously inhabited perhaps the environs of this Bay may contain one half of their whole number.
Excepting a few small fish caught, none of these Canoes brought off any kind of refreshments – either Hogs Poultry or Vegetables, so that we remain entirely ignorant of the produce of this Island or the refreshments which in a case of necessity and hereafter likely to be derivd from it, though I must confess that some knowledge of these circumstances, which at this time was so easily to be acquired, might prove very satisfactory & perhaps of great utility to future Navigators traversing this wide Ocean.
The Valley round the bottom of the Bay is tolerably pleasant when compard with other parts of the Island being scatterd over with Bushes among which we could perceive the habitations of the Natives & some little signs of Cultivation, the hills behind & on the South Side of it appeard thinly coverd with some verdure & here & there wooded with some scrubby Trees particularly in

 


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Dec:
the hollow places between the hills, but they seemd of no great magnitude. Towards the North end the hills are not so rugged & rocky but ascend with a smooth surface covrd with grass & destitute of Trees or bushes of any kind...We observd no Cocoa Nut Trees any where on the Island.
 We think it not improbable that there may be some other land in the vicinity of this Island either to the Eastward or South East of it & though we saw no appearance of any, yet there are two circumstances already mentioned which in some measure favor this conjecture viz. those places observed on the tops of the hills which from their situation & appearance we could not reconcile to anything else than places of defence for the purpose no doubt of affording a more secure retreat & protection to the Inhabitants when their Country is invaded by some neighbouring tribe. The other is our not having seen any wood or timber on the Island likely to furnish & keep up such a number of fine Canoes, there is therefore  a strong possibility of their being supplied with at least the greatest part of them from some other places.
This is all I have to say concerning this little Island which we now call Oparoo. At five in the afternoon we filled and made sail again to the Northward.

23rd  On the morning of the 23rd Oparoo was still in sight bearing South East by South about 17 leagues astern of us – we had a fresh breeze from the South East quarter but fluctuating from point to point this & the following day

25th The wind was easterly on the 25th in the morning squally with rain, the rest of the day it blew fresh with cloudy unsettled weather, so that it was not deemd prudent to run on all night being

                                                                                                                           
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near the situation of Gloucester Island, we therefore brought to & made Sail again next morning when we had the same wind & dark squally weather with heavy rain & turbulent sea.   

27th             In the night preceeding the 27th the wind veerd again to the South East quarter, so that we had to contend this & the following day with baffling weather & foul wind which sometimes blew very fresh & squally

29th             Early on the 29th we passed Osnaburg Island which was seen to the Eastward of us at a distance of about 9 or 10 leagues with a fresh breeze that towards noon brought us in sight of the South End of Otaheite being S70W. but in the afternoon the wind being somewhat scanty, our progress by no means kept pace with our wishes, for our near approach to the place of rendezvous put our anxiety upon edge to know something of the fate of our Consort & enjoy those refreshments which this fertile Island so plentifully affords among a happy people whose mild disposition & simplicity of manners have endeard them to former Voyagers. In the evening we got sight of the northern extreme of the Island, but judging we should not be able to reach it before dark we tackd & lay off for the night.

30th             In the evening of Dec 30th we stood in again for Point Venus with a light breeze, & when we came near the land three men came off to us in a Canoe with some Hogs – they first handed in a very small pig with a green bough as a peace offering & then two small Hogs as presents for the Captain - These people informed us that a vessel with two masts was at an anchor in Matavai Bay which we had no doubt of being our Consort, & when we anchord there about noon we found the Chatham agreeable to our expectations had arrivd here four days

      
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Dec:
before us & to our no small satisfaction all in good health. – Her Commander Lieut Broughton came on board Before we anchord and told us that the night we parted company they continued following us until a violent sea broke over their stern & shattered their little boat to pieces which obligd them to bring to for the safety of the Vessel till the storm somewhat abated, & we finding our safety in scudding before the gale will readily account for the variation. But in the afternoon following he said a still greater danger presented them, for on discovering these dreary rocks we called the Snares they were so situated as to be obliged to pass by a small Channel through the very middle of them. Having thus happily escaped shipwreck they pursued their course to that Island & on their way discovered what they named Chatham Islands in honour of the first Lord of the Admiralty. They coasted along the North side of them, & surveyed the Shore for 10 or 12 leagues, the northern extreme of which they placed in Latitude 43° 49’ South & in Longitude 183° 40’ East of Greenwich - They came to anchor in a Bay where the Commander & some of the Officers landed and took possession of the Country in his Britannic Majesty’s name, But their most amicable endeavours either by presents or otherwise proved ineffectual to bring the Natives to a friendly intercourse.
Two days before our arrival here they experienced such a deluge of rain attended with thunder & lightning as none of them ever recollected to have seen the like before, the River of Matavai broke through its high banks, bringing down with the impetuosity of the stream vast numbers of trees torn up by the roots which now lay scatterd throughout the Bay. The Chatham’s cutter

                                                                                                                         
1791    
Dec:
filled & swamped along side in the night time when her masts Oars and Sails were washed way, & the Surf ran so high that they were not able to land till the evening before our arrival when the weather became more moderate & mild.
Lieutenant Broughton had not yet been visited by any of the Royal family, indeed he understood that they were all at Eimeo excepting young Otoo who had sent him a message in the forenoon requesting to see him on shore, & after the Discovery was Moord Capt. Vancouver Lt Broughton Mr Whidbey myself & two Chiefs went on shore to meet him. We landed on Point Venus & walkd but a little way when we were met by the usual peace offerings a small pig with a green bough & in presenting these to Capt. Vancouver the man squatted down & repeated a few short sentences in which he was answered on our part by Mooree one of the Chiefs who attended us, after this we were conducted across the breach which the river had lately made through the Beach to a little distance beyond it, where we found the young prince elevated on a mans shoulders & robed in a dress ornamented with feathers which formed a ruff round his neck by no means inelegant. The Natives were arrangd on his right & left leaving a clear open area for our approach. On coming within a few yards of him we were stopd & addressd in a short speech by a man who stood near the prince – This drew one of considerable length on our part from Mooree who then
divided Mr. Broughton’s intended present which was very considerable into four equal parts & each of us being then wrapped


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Dec:
round in a quantity of Island Cloth separately carried our presents & laid them upon a Mat close to the young prince. After which we were admitted to a conference in which he requested with great earnestness to send a boat to Eimeo for his father, the reason he could not come back in his own Canoe we could not comprehend but many of the Chiefs being equally solicitous & Capt Vancouver considering his presence of great importance during our stay promisd to comply with this request on the following day, at the same time requesting leave to erect our tents on a spot of ground near the point which was complied with without hesitation.
This young prince appears to be about ten years of age & if one may venture to predict at so early a period he seems to possess talents which when maturd by age & experience will not fail to qualify him in a high degree for that elevated station he is born to hold – His appearance is firm & graceful, his behaviour affable & easy & his features pleasant & regular though sometimes clouded with a degree of austerity that enables him already to command immediate obedience to his will among these mild people.
After this conference was over Captain Vancouver fixed on the spot where the Tents were to be erected & on coming to the Boat found a large Hog from young Otoo which was brought on board with another that was presented to me by Mooree, & on coming along sides we found the Natives numerously collected & a market already established for the different refreshments. Captain Vancouver now askd me if I would accompany an Officer on the following day to Eimeo for the king to which I willingly consented.                     

                                                                                                              
1791      
Dec:
On the 31st I accompanied  Lt Mudge & Mr Collet the Gunner in the Pinnace to Eimeo we were attended by Motooara the Chief of Huaheine a very stout & intelligent man as a guide. On putting off from the Ship the Natives who were numerously collected along side cheerd us with repeated plaudits & the shore reechoed with the name of their King which is a great proof of their strong attachment & veneration for a man under whose mild government they have so long enjoyed ease & happiness.
We now directed our course for Eimeo & passing the entrance of the Harbour where Capt. Cook anchord, we soon enterd a very intricate gap in the reef under the sole guidance of our Conductor & went round the North end on the inside of several small Islands & from thence coasted the western shore for about four Miles – further to a place called Wharraree where we arrived about two in the afternoon. Here the boat was brought to a grappling & a message sent to Otoo, for we were not permitted to land till he came to receive us, which he did in about an hour after with the rest of the Royal family followed by a large group of Natives.
After spreading several bales of Cloth on the Beach opposite to us we were then invited to land, & Otoo himself receivd us with open arms & embracd us separately with that friendly cordiality which has ever distinguished his character & attachment to the British Nation – He then introduced us to the Queen & two other ladies & a sick chief who lay on a litter close by him - After these salutations we were wrapped up in such a quantity of Cloth by his own hand that we could hardly move under it. In this situation we made our presents to him which consisted


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only of two Axes a few knives scissors looking glasses & some beads.    
We now asked Otoo when he would be ready to accompany us to Matavai, he answered tomorrow morning & having got by his own request a Bottle of Wine & some Ship’s Biscuit out of the Boat he sat down to it with a keen rellish and on putting the first draught of it to his head he drank to King George & Britanee, & while finishing the rest of his Bottle, he asked us a number of pert questions such as the names of both Vessels & their Commanders, how long they were from Britanee – did they touch at New Holland and where were they going after they left Otaheite.
He then asked if Mr Webber was on board or any one in his place & when he was answered in the negative he explained his concern as he wished much to send his sons picture to the King of (Britanee) He asked if Bane was still alive (by which he meant Sir Joseph Banks) & whether he would again visit Otaheite.
As Mr Collet was with Capt. Cook on his last Voyage he recollected him the moment he landed & askd him after a number of his old acquaintances, & questiond him particularly about Capt. Cook’s death whose fate he seemd to bewail with real sorrow. During the above conversation we constantly called him by he name of Otoo, but he now took an opportunity to put us right, by telling us that the name Otoo descended to his son who was now King of Otaheite & that he adopted the name of Pomarre by which we must in future call him.
Pomarre then took us a little aside from the party to see his father Old Whapai a chief well known in Capt. Cook’s first & second visits to these 

                                                                                                                
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Islands; We found him seated on a Mat & on presenting him with a few small       trinkets he hardly got hold of them when they were torn out of his hands in a squabble by the Multitude who seemd to consider him as their common prey. He appeard to have seen at least eighty revolutions of the seasons – his hair & beard are quite silverd over with age, yet he walks as upright & seemingly with as much ease & firmness as his son.
We walked along the Beach followd by the sick chief carried on his litter & a large concourse of the Natives to a house at a little distance where dinner was prepared for us & the Boats Crew & where we remaind all night with the nobles family during which they went by turns up to (Romeo) the sick chief whom they all treatd with such care & tenderness as induced me to enquire more particularly into his history & was told that he was the Eareo rahie no Morea that as King of Morea which is another name for this Island *that he & Pomarre are reciprocally brothers in law by interchanging sisters in marriage & that his name was Motooaro–mahora Though his name is changed in consequence of his coming to the Sovereignty of the Island on the death of Maheine, there is no doubt but this is the same chief who this district belonged to in Captain Cook’s time, for in that expedition after the Stolen Goats across the Island it was here Capt. Cook met with his Boats & ceased committing any further depredations knowing that this Chief & five           
*Cook’s last voyage Vol. 2 p. 28
Forsters Obs p: 217


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Dependents were friends to the Otaheitian King & how far he was right the         sequel has provd for the oldest sister to this Chief became soon after Queen of Otaheite & Mother to the present Royal family. Pomarre’s youngest sister was about the same time given in Marriage to this chief & is now Queen of this Island, so that their friendship stands on the firmest basis & to cement it still more, Pomarre has lately taken to himself another sister of Motooaro - mahora named Whaerede so that he lives at present with both sisters & is very fond of the youngest but has no children by her – indeed I suspect that the cruel customs of the country would not suffer them to live.
In our walk along shore we observed the dung of Black cattle in several places, & on enquiring after the animals themselves the Natives told us there were four Cows & a Bull on this district which we understood were all that remaind of breed left by Capt Cook at Otaheite in 1777 & which soon after fell to the lot of Maheine King of this Island in a victorious descent on the Island of Otaheite They have since remaind here and considered as the property of Motooaro- mahora successor to Maheine The natives call them Bora Toora and say they are very wild in consequence of which we could not see them, but what was most to be lamented the Bull is by some means or other incapacitated consequently there is no likelihood of any further increase of the breed.


1792    
Jan 1st:
The first of January 1792. This morning we proposed to Pomarre to set off  pretty early, that the people might perform the fatiguing task of rowing across with more comfort before the sultry heat of the
                                                                                                              
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the day set in: he told us he had no objection & that beside himself & his two      
wives Motooaro - mahora & his wife & the Chief of Huaheine were going with us. On this occasion it was observd to him that the Boat could not carry so many without greatly incommoding the rowers & especially that the sick Chief could not be accommodated comfortably without our being deprived of the use of several oars  He answered that he could not go with us unless we also took his friends, and finding this his fixed resolution, we were no longer at a loss to comprehend the reason why the Boat was so earnestly requested to come for him, and therefore proposed that the sick Chief should be laid in the stern shoots of the Boat while he & the Chief of Huaheine should attend him & that the three ladies should accompany us in a Canoe as we could not accommodate them in the Boat to our satisfaction – this was readily agreed to & on getting the sick chief into the Boat the three ladies came & took a very affectionate leave of him & promised to be with us at Otaheite on the following day.
After putting off we rowed along the western shore to go round the South West point of the Island & on our way met with Pomarre’s Mother Opeereeroa who came off to us in a double Canoe with a present of Cloth - On approaching the Boat she burst into tears & seemd inconsolable while she remaind a long side, frequently uttering the name of Capt. Cook which sufficiently showed the sincerity of her affections & the tenderness of her feeling for the memory of a Man whose whole tenor of conduct was constantly actuated for the good of mankind in general & in the latter part of his life for those happy isles in particular We made her


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some little presents & regretted much it was not in our power to be more
liberal & having taken our leave of this venerable lady whose looks and appearance alone would command respect, we directed our course for Otaheite.
While we were crossing over being in company with the Chief of Huaheine I made some enquiries of him about Omia who was left on that Island, & he informed me that he was not in the least molested in his settlement after Captain Cook left him, on the contrary that people of all ranks flockd round him with their aid & much respected him for his great knowledge and observations, which he frequently took great pleasure in communicating, by relating to crowded groups of his countrymen, in pleasing stories what he had seen and heard of the manners & customs of other nations & countries, by which he always rivetted their attention with astonishment & admiration & procurd their affection with esteem, so that his death was much lamented by people of all denominations… in short they seemd to revere him as a Character who had travelled far, seen much and profited by the observations he made on the different countries he visited.
He & his faithful adherents the New Zealand Boys died of a disease called here Assa no peppe which particularly affects the throat with soreness & tumours & is said to be brought to these Islands by a Spanish Vessel in the year 1773* Though I wishd much to see the symptoms & appearances of this disorder which is said to have made great havock among the natives, yet I must confess that my feelings were equally gratified in finding
* Cook 2d Voy. Vol. p.
                                                                                                             
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that it is now rare occurrence for I did not observe a single case of it in all my  excursions during our stay at Otaheite.
I further understood that Omai’s English house still remains in its original place, having been preserved by a large one built over it  after the manner of the country as Capt Cook had recommended & that this together with his plantation & his horse (which is the only one remaining of the breed) is now in the possession of this Chief & Became his property as King of the Island responsible to the custom of the Country on the decease of the owner.
About 9 at night we arrived at Pomarres residence in Oparre after rowing about 8 miles along the shore being set so far to leeward by unfavorable winds & currents. On landing Pomarre ordered plenty of victuals to be provided & we all supped with a keen appetite, after which we retird to rest – The three Chiefs preferred sleeping in the Boat with two seamen & the rest of the Crew provided themselves with Beds more to their satisfaction on shore.
Pomarre still acclaims that mark of his former dignity of not feeding himself & now we had an instance of his abstaining a whole day from food & drink on account of his not having a proper person in the boat to feed him though we frequently offerd to perform this servile office, which he always modestly refused.

2nd               As we had still eight miles to row we again embark’d on the 2nd January by the dawn of Day with the addition of one Man to our party who seated himself forward in the bow of our boat holding a small pig & a green bough in his hand this was thought was intended as a peace offering on    


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on our arrival at the Ship, but we soon found our mistake for on coming
opposite to a Morai named Tepootapooatoa Pomarre desired to be landed & requested us to follow him as he was here he said going to make an offering to the Eatooa or Deity.
On coming to the Morai we found several of the Natives already assembled - The Young King had taken his station before the Altar on a mans shoulders & close to him another supported a large oblong bundle of white cloth – On approaching within nine or ten paces of these we made a full stop. Pomarre was now complimented by several Chiefs as they arrivd, who seemd to vie with each other in expressing their joy at seeing him & on this occasion none of them came empty handed, but I did not observe all this while that he exchanged a single sound with his son.
The ceremony now commenced & the first part of it consisted in an address to Pomarre from a Chief seated near Otoo, who sent over to him separately at intervals of his harangue several Pigs & Hogs two Dogs one Fowl & a bunch of red feathers which we supposed to be the presents of the different Chiefs thus consecrated as they were offerd to him, but he never touchd any of them they were carried away the moment they were presented. After this two priests seated themselves on the ground close to us & one of them began to address the opposite side in a long harangue or prayer which was now & then dictated by Pomare. In this orison the Priest often changed his voice from a slow solemn tone to that of a quick & squeaking one, in which he was at times joind by the other. At last a small Hog was sent over to the King which was the victim to be sacrificed on this occasion, & as the name of our sick friend Motooaro - mahora Earee rahie no Morea was frequently

                                                                                                          
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mentioned in this prayer, we supposed it might be in supplication to the Deity to prolong his life.
The Hog was now led to the back of the Morai followd by the priest & Otoo, & Pomarre seating himself down in conversation with the Chiefs, We obtaind his leave to follow Otoo & see the remaining part of the ceremony. – The Hog was immediately strangled cleand & half roasted over some hot stones & then brought before a small Altar on which was placd a bundle of white Cloth; here Otoo attended & a Priest squatting down close to it utterd a short prayer in a quick shrill voice ending with a loud shriek – In this devotion he was now & then accompanied with two drums – The victim was then placd on a Whatta or scaffold which already groand under a stinking load of such sacrifices.
This Morai appeard to be a considerable place of worship if we may judge from the number of human skulls that lay scatterd near the Altar & which we were told had been sacrificed at different times to the Deity, and the vast number of animals & vegetables that were placed on different Whattas & mouldering away by putrefaction. Having satisfied our curiosity & observing nothing but what had been fully described by former Voyagers we set off for the Ship, but no inducement could prevail on the young King to accompany us though we were very urgent with him
When we approachd the Discovery Pomarre was saluted with four Guns & on his arrival on board, the Chatham honord him with an equal number amidst incessant shouts of approbation & joy from every Canoe throughout the Bay. In the evening the three ladies arrived from Eimeo & Pomarre finding himself comfortably situated remaind     
   

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on board with his friends all night.
Motooaro - mahora staid in the boat from the time of our leaving Eimeo till he was hoisted in on board the Discovery & bore the fatiguing motion of it much better than we at first expected, for we were really apprehensive of his dying on the passage he was so emaciated by a general atrophy that he appeard a mere animated skeleton & yet bore the prospect of his approaching fate & lingering illness with a becoming patience & resignation. Pomarre was remarkably attentive to him seldom left his bedside & administered every care & comfort he could in performing the most servile offices for his dying friend.
The Tents & observatory were this day sent on shore & erected on the spot allotted for them on our first landing & to give them a greater security three field pieces were mounted on their carriages & pointed to different avenues. Lt Puget who commanded the party on shore during our stay performd this duty with much activity, in which he said he was greatly assisted by the friendly behaviour of the Natives who voluntarily carried different articles from the boat to the place of encampment with a Degree of honesty that surpassed our expectation & gave us no small hopes of an amicable intercourse.

3rd                  On the 3rd the Time-keepers from both Vessels were landed & a series of Observations began to ascertain their rates by Mr.Whidbey Master of the Discovery assisted by Mr.Ballard. Another large Tent was also erected on Shore to screen the artificers employd on various duties particularly in building the Chatham a small Boat from the Sultry heat of the Suns vertical rays & that the

                                                                                                          
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curiosity of the Natives might not prove troublesome to our various plans of        operations, lines were drawn round the encampment to limit their approach & Sentries regularly secured night and day to prevent any encroachment.
After dinner Pomarre went on shore with his sick friend & all the rest of our Royal Guests attended by a numerous retinue. On leaving the Discovery they were saluted with four guns & on their landing on Point Venus by a discharge of the Artillery at the Encampment. They took up their abode in a small insignificant hut near our Lines which had no claim at least in appearances to a royal residence, but Pomarre’s reason for this apparently incommoding himself & family was that he might be near to us to preserve good order among his people as he still administered the government for his son who was considered in some respect as a minor.

4th                   The 4th continued dark and gloomy, the wind was moderate but variable with intervals of calm. The trees that were washd down the river by the late deluge kept still floating about on the inside of the Bay & Lt Broughton fearful that they might injure the Chatham’s cables Shifted her place nearer to Point Venus.
In the evening we had a very heavy fall of rain & a long rolling swell made into the Bay. Roopaia, Pomarre’s next brother came on board to warn us of a change of weather & requested leave to stay if that should be necessary, he might be present to give any assistance that lay in his power to command which was granted & his wife remaind with him.


1792     
Jan 5th:
In the forenoon of the 5th the appearance of the weather strongly indicating a gale of wind inducd Capt. Vancouver to give orders to drop the sheat anchor especially as a heavy sea rolled at the same time into the Bay, breaking incessantly over our Gunwales by the rolling of the Vessel & dashing against the Beach close to us in a violent surf, which rendered our situation by no means a pleasant one. This tempestuous weather however did not deter some of our friends from coming off. Moorea & Mathiabo two Chiefs who had already attachd themselves to us by their friendly behaviour, observing both Vessels labour so much at their Anchors, dashd into the surf & braving its utmost fury with that dexterity of art which renders them always superior to the most forcible commotions of the briny element, they came on board to know our situation & whether they could be of any service to us. After they rested a little we trusted Mathiabo with a Keg of Liquor lashd on a board, to the party on shore, for the sea ran so high that all communication between them & us in any other way was entirely stopd & we were happy to learn from himself soon after that he landed safe with his Keg which proved very acceptable in the Encampment.
In the afternoon the weather gradually moderated with less sea & towards evening a few Canoes venturd to come off, in one of which Pomarre paid us a visit & paddled the Canoe himself.-
This day the young King visited the encampment for the first time & was constantly carried around upon a man’s shoulders. The officers made him some presents but no inducement could prevail on him to enter either of  

                                                                                                          
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Jan:
the Tents or Markee & the Natives said if he had that no subject durst be soon there afterwards according to the established custom of the country.
6th                The weather on the 6th was more settled but a heavy surf still broke on the beach & as we were not beyond the reach of its influence the Ship continued rolling very much.
Roopaia considered our safety now so apparent that his presence was no longer necessary – He therefore went on shore accompanied by his wife – The seeming anxiety of this Chief for our welfare while he remaind on board in this tempestuous weather was equal to that of a watchful Pilot’s, for in the dead hours of the night he frequently visited the Deck to observe the appearances of the weather & view the Cables.
We were told that the Bounty in her last visit to this Island had left the greatest part of the Mutineers on shore & saild so abruptly in the night time, that they cut her Cables & left her anchors in the Bay one of which this Chief afterwards recoverd, & on his Majesty’s Frigate the Pandora’s arrival he carried it on Board & presented it to Captain Edwards as belonging to the King of Britainee. which was a great proof of his honesty & particular regard to our Sovereign.
Roopaia is a few years younger than Pomarre & considered at present the greatest Warrior in the Island. He has quite changed their mode of fighting which formerly used to be in large unwieldy war canoes, instead of which he transports his warriors quicker & with more ease in smaller ones. makes good his landing & attacks the enemy on shore, where by his stratagems good conduct & bravery he generally gains his point. He is very pleasing in his manner is firm & graceful in his gait, communicative in his                                    


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conversations pert in his enquiries - quick in his discernment & sincere in his       attachments- we found by that particular veneration he continues to pay to the memory of Captain Clark, whose friend he was & whose name he still bears in preference to any other, however honorable, for we were informd that some time ago he lead the warriors in his Country in a victorious battle, & on returning home they wish’d to confer upon him a name – expressive of his great exploits & conquests, tho he modestly refused, telling them that he was already called Tate (Clarke) which was sufficient.

7th                The 7th In consequence of intimations being given by Capt Vancouver on the preceeding day that fireworks would be displayd this evening at the Encampment, a great number of natives assembled from distant parts of the Country. Among the group before the Tents in the forenoon three of Pomarre’s young family made their appearance, Otoo the young king of Otaheite paid us indeed daily visits, but his brother, Whyadoon a prince about eight years of age with pleasing open features had not been seen before by any of us – he came on this occasion from Tiaraboo which is now considered as his principality & of which he had very lately taken possession, These two brothers were accompanied by a sister named Otahoorai who was not yet above six years of age & she as well as her brothers were constantly carried about on a Man’s back. & no inducement could bring either of them under the shelter of our Pavilions. We are told that another sister still younger named Ora was at this time at Eimeo which makes up the whole of the present young royal family.

                                                                                                               
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Jan:
In the afternoon the field pieces on shore were fired off several times charged with round & grape shot towards the Sea, to show the Natives their effects, & the distances to which they could transmit their destructive powers. But when the fireworks were to be displayd in the evening, it was not an easy matter to prevail on Pomarre to come from among a group into the clear area where he might have a better view of the whole entertainment, & so fearful & timorous was he of their effects, that he was most of the time supported by two Men & now and then by his wife Whaeredee – No argument could induce him to fire any of them off, he always answered let Whaeredee do it, which she did several times with undaunted courage & coolness to placate us & her timorous husband. The rest of the Royal Family were also present & together with a numerous concourse of the Chiefs & Natives seemd to enjoy the whole entertainment with a mixture of awe & astonishment.
Old Whappai arrived this day from Eimeo & was present at this entertainment which the Natives call Heiva no Britanee.

9th                     The weather being somewhat settled I set off early on the morning of the 8th to the Mountains accompanied by two of the Natives as guides & ascended by a ridge of hills behind the district of Matavai which I found chiefly covered with a species of Trees (Pieris dicholania) in stunted state & a few low shrubs, but the valleys on each side presented with pasturage & appeared capable of serving herds of granivorous animals or producing the various produce of different climes by Cultivation.
The Soil in general was a dark brown argiliacious earth of an unctuest  quality, though


1792      
Jan:
in many places especially on the higher grounds it was of a bright brick-
colour & there seemd to have undergone the action of fire. In the valleys the exterior stratum was a kind of light black mould which would not fail to improve by a due admixture with the foregoing.
After ascending about 4 miles we entered the skirts of the wood which renders the upper regions of this country inaccessible by its density & here under a vertical sun we enjoyd a temperate climate & spent a good part of the day in Botanical researches. Below us appeared the plains of Matavai & Oparre; richly cropped with bread fruit Trees—Bananas & Cocoa Palms affording a delicious shade to the scatterd habitations of the Natives & backd by naked hilly country which we had ascended. To the Northward was seen the low Island of Tetoroah, emerging as it were out of the Sea, where scattered tufts of trees appeared to join the sky to the briny element.
In the afternoon a thick fog & heavy rain which in a short time wet us to the Skin, obligd me to return sooner than I could wish, & renderd our path so very slippery that we found it a much more difficult task to descend than we had in ascending, though this change of weather did not happen without my being apprisd of it by my guides, who frequently solicited me to return before it came on, & who were no doubt at this time prompted by a more powerful impulse that of hunger, for we had neglected to carry any kind of refreshment with us, that we returned with keen appetites & in coming down made for the first grove of Cocoa Nut Trees we saw to refresh ourselves, but I was not  little surprised when they told me that every tree in
was under a particular interdiction for Tee, which I understood

                                                                                                            
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to be an evil spirit, & they showed me that each tree had his mark, which was a small bunch of Thorn or grass suspended to its stem.
As my thirst was no way relievd but rather became more urgent at the sight of these Cocoa Nuts, I used a good deal of persuasion with them to go up one of the trees, which one of them at last did with much reluctance, while the other remaind at the foot of it employed in fervent devotion, & the first Cocoa Nut that came down, he cut of the top part of it & placed it on a bush as an offering for Tee & gave me the other part to quench my thirst, whilst he still continued muttering his prayer, which in a short time had the good effect of removing any squeamishness of conscience he might have entertaind against the uses of this forbidden fruit; for they afterwards both ate & drank of these Cocoa Nuts pretty freely.
We continued our journey down the hill & soon after arrivd at the house of Pooenoh the Chief of Matavai who was my particular friend & who had on this occasion provided plenty of victuals for our return, & after eating a little of this repast, finding I was very wet & fatigued, they made me strip off my cloaths & wrapped me up in a quantity of dry Otaheitian Cloth & in this situation a number of women gatherd round to romee me & continued their operation of pinching nipping  pressing & squeezing till every part of me was so benumbed & torpid that I actually fell asleep under their hands & when I awakend found myself very much refreshed by their rough usage which I am confident might be employed to advantage in many Ongoing chronic & sedentary disorders. In the meanwhile

 


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Jan:
they had taken care to dry my cloaths, so that I returned to the ship in the
evening very comfortable through the good offices of these friendly people.

9th                 The 9th I remained on board in the forenoon to arrange the collection of plants I made on the preceeding day, which I was sorry to find sufferd much from the heavy fall of rain. From the ship we observed a procession of the Natives going along the Beach towards the smallest Hut on the point where the Royal Family resided, they carried about two dozen of large packages or baskets each supported upon a long pole between two Mens shoulders, who walked with a slow heavy pace as if under a weighty burden & we were afterwards told that the contents of these burdens were dressd provisions consisting of Hogs Dogs & variety of Vegetables which we supposed were intended for the sick chief to be sent as an offering to the Morai in his behalf.
In the afternoon I went on shore with some of the Officers & cleard a small spot near Pooenoh’s house for a garden, where we sewd a variety of English Garden Seeds, many of which were above ground & in a thriving way before we left the Island. When Pooenoh saw us thus employd he shewed us some Orange Trees that were planted near his house he said by Capt Bligh of the Bounty, some of them were two feet high & in a very thriving state, so that we hope the time is not very remote when future Navigators will find plenty of their delicious fruit on these Islands for we also left in different part of the Plantation a number of young orange seedlings which I had reard in the frame on the quarter Deck since we left the Cape of Good Hope.

10th               Yest day we enjoyd a fine fresh breeze with    
                                                                                                             
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Jan:
fair pleasant weather. On Shore the Natives gave a very indifferent
entertainment called a Heiva at which several of the Officers & people at the Tents were present but enjoyd very little pleasure from the performance.
Hearing that our friend Roopaia was indisposed I accompanied Capt Vancouver in the afternoon to see him, we found him surrounded by a few consoling friends in a small temporary hut situated in an airy place on the banks of the river a little way up. After enquiring into his complaint I offerd my advice which he readily accepted, & Capt Vancouver was good enough to send for the things I orderd on Board the Discovery, which I was happy had the promised affect in relieving him. While we were with him his Brother Pomarre came in the same friendly manner to enquire how he was but did not stay long as he soon after attended Motooaro-mahow alongside of the Chatham when that Chief was hoisted in & slept on their quarter deck under the awning all night where Pomarre & Toona one of his wives remained by him both performing the most tender offices for the dying chief.

11th               As the Sea had on the preceeding day over flown the banks of the river & made it brakish where we were watering near the Tents, a party of the Natives was on the 11th employed in rolling the Cask a little way up the River as far as Roopaias house under whose care they were placd & fresh filld & for their hard labor each of them had daily two small Nails & four Beads. Indeed the facility & honesty with which the natives were brought to work & drudge for us in this sultry climate was highly pleasing for


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They washd all our linnen, taking on shore a parcel of it in the morning &         bringing it on board again in the evening or next day exceedingly well done - But this day a circumstance happend, which put us in some measure upon our guard in trusting them at least with much at a time, for some linnen belonging to Mr.Johnstone & about half a dozen shirts & other things belonging to Mr.Walker of the Chatham were run away with. Pomarre was made acquainted with this breach of confidence & he assurd them that the Teeto or thief should be sent after, yet they had very little hopes of recovering any of their goods.
In the course of their day old Potatow made his first appearance at the Tents a chief of some consequence & well known in Capt. Cook’s different visits but he has changed his name to Reetoa & Pohooetoa a circumstance which took place we understood not only with him but with all the principal chiefs on the Island on young Otoo’s accession to the regal dignity when he was invested with the Maro oora & what is very singular on this occasion a great number of words in their language were changd & new ones adopted in their stead; even words expressing the most common & familiar things sufferd this mutation, Matto, dead or killd, is now expressd by  Boohe, & so on with others ; & the words which were thus laid aside are forbidden to be used by anyone on the Island under severest punishment; so that if these changes happen frequent there can be no stability in their language, but what depends upon when & superstitions caprice, though I am rather inclind to suppose that after a limited time these obsolete words become again fashionable & used indiscriminately, & this may in some measure give rise to that copiousness in their language

                                                                                                               
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which Mr. Anderson takes notice of in Captain Cook’s last voyage.

12th                On the 12th another party of the Natives began to cut fire wood for both Vessels in consequence of previous application Pomarre, who orderd such of the Bread fruit Trees as had been washd down the River by the late inundation to be cut up & brought to the Tents for that purpose. This business was carried on under the direction of the two Chiefs Poeenoh & Mooree who had axes lent to them for the service as they valued their own too much to use them.
In the forenoon I went on shore accompanied by Mr.Baker to take an excursion up the Valley from which the river issud behind Matavai.  As we went through the Plantations we saw the women every where industriously employd in manufacturing Cloth, as the demand for it between both Vessels as an article of curiosity was now very great.
We found the Valley pretty wide at the entrance but narrower as we advanced up being hemd in on both sides with steep Banks which became more elevated rugged & gloomy as they approachd each other higher up; the bottom of the Valley was tolerably even & upon a gradual ascent, the river winding through it from side to side so that we had to cross it several times, but this was no hardship for we were never sufferd to wet ourselves, the natives were always struggling who should be foremost in carrying us across on their backs.
We passed a number of the Habitations of  the Natives on both sides of the River surrounded by little plantations of Taro, Sugar Cane Bananas & the Cloth Plants, but the Bread Fruit Trees being more or less frequent the higher we advanced, so that here


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the Natives seemd to subsist chiefly by their industry in cultivating the ground to the best advantage. We saw a number of them as we went along amuse themselves in catching small fish in the river with a kind of little scoop net fixd on the end of a long rod.
After going up about 3 miles we dind on a rural spot under the shade of a spreading Tree, where we had a plentiful repast provided for us by the Natives dressd & servd up very cleanly the only thing that gave us disgust was the salt water which they set before us to dip our meat into in lieu of Salt, which had been so often used before on similar occasions & carefully preserved in an old Bamboo that it had now the appearance of greasy pickle.
In the afternoon we returned to the bottom of the Valley & put up for the night at Mooree’s house where we expected to be joind next morning by a large party of the Officers to proceed further up. Mooree himself happend to be about at this time on board one of the Vessels in the Bay, & when he returnd in the evening & found us sitting at his fire side I never saw a man that appeard more dissatisfied with himself than he was for not being home sooner to provide for our entertainment. - He immediately set the whole village in a stir, killed a large Hog & dressd it with a profusion of vegetables for our supper, He spread clean Mats & plenty of Cloth for our Beds &  when we retird to rest He took our cloths & everything belonging to us into his own custody, taking  a singular account of every article we had even a small quantity of liquor that remained

                                                                                                            
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in a bottle he measurd the height of the liquor with a piece of sick which he gave us to keep that we might satisfy ourselves in the morning the same quantity was retaind. In short our Host was not only profuse in his Hospitality but scrupulously honest & careful that we might not suffer any Molestation while under his protection.

13th               Next morning we were joined by Lieut. Broughton &  a large party of the Officers & Mooree provided a plentiful breakfast for the whole of us in a large house  pleasantly situated at a little distance from his dwelling after which Mr.Broughton informd us that several of the Chiefs were going to Oparre for a few days & among others his particular friend Whytooa a younger brother of Pomarre who had strongly importuned his company, he therefore proposd that we should for the present relinquish our intended route up the Valley & embrace the opportunity of going under the care & protection of his friend to see the district of Oparre, which was agreed to by all & we immediately returnd on board to prepare for the occasion.
It was a little past noon before we left the Ship the party consisting of Lt. Broughton, Puget, Baker, Mr.Johnstone, Mr.Walker & Myself with Whytooa & his wife & Mowree the head chief of Ulietea who arrivd here two days before & in whose Canoe we all embarkd On passing the first point of Oparre we requested to land in order to see the Morai of Tepootaporata Here we were attended by Mowree who on entering the sacred spot desird us to stop till he had addressed the Eatooa, for this purpose he seated himself  


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on the ground & began to pray before an Altar ornamented with pieces of
wood indifferently carv’d & on which was placed on this occasion large bundle of white Cloth and some red feathers by an elderly man. Before these Emblems he continued praying sometime, during which all our names were separately mentioned twice & the names of the Commanders of the different Vessels that visited the Island together with the name of King George & Britanee which was often repeated.
When this ceremonial solemnity was ended we were readily admitted to every part of the Morai & Mowree took great pains to explain to us every peculiarity belonging to it, for he appeard to be a man well informd in the rites of their religion; & on that account we could not help lamenting that knowledge of the language was by no means sufficient to comprehend his meaning except in very few instances, otherwise we should have left this place much better informd, for it is at present the most considerable Morai on this part of the Island.
On returning to the Beach we found the Canoe had gone off & left us, we therefore walkd along the shore about a mile further till we came to a house surrounded with young Plantations of the Ava Plant & the whole neatly fencd with rails of Bamboo. This we were told belonged to Roopaia & on entring the house we found him at dinner with a numerous train of our acquaintances from Matavai. The weather being now exceeding sultry we refreshed ourselves with the cool & nourishing juice of Cocoa Nuts & rested

                                                                                                           
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a little while with Roopaia till a message came for us from his brother who had gone on to his own habitation, but our friend Mowree joind the party here & seemd to relish the repast with a good appetite.
We followd the Messenger & soon after came to Whytooa’s house which is situated close to the shore & backd by fine plantations of the Ava plant interspersed with patches of Sugar Cane & Bananas, but next the house grew a small shrubbery of the ornamental plants of the Country, & the whole was surrounded by a fence intersected by paths & kept in such order as reflected the highest credit on its owner. Here we found our Host who had already taken effectual steps to provide for our entertainment by killing a large Hog & collecting the other necessary refreshments which were now getting ready on the outsides of the Plantation. When we entrd his house which is large and airy he put us in possession of one half of it by stretching a rope across the middle to keep the Natives from pressing too near us & prevent their idle & teasing curiosity from molesting our quiet.
After dinner we heard the report of guns which we judged to be complimentary to Pomarre, on his leaving Matavai & Roopaia visiting us soon after with some of his party confirmd our opinion, & he further observd us that as Pomarre had now left the Vessel he was afraid the Natives would not be so orderly & therefore requested Mr Broughton to write a few lines to Capt. Vancouver & recommend to


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him five Chiefs whose names he mentioned & in whose good offices he
might place the fullest confidence, in the absence of the Royal Family. This was complied with & Mathiabo one of the five was immediately dispatched with this message on board the Discovery.
From the first of our acquaintances with Roopaia his friendly care seemd to be wholly engaged in preserving a good understanding between us & his Countrymen, & even here retird in his country cottage we find him eagerly employd in these laudable endeavours which I am happy to observe had hitherto so far succeeded that very little interruption had taken place of the most friendly intercourse.
Soon after we were complimented by a visit from young Otoo, his approach was made known to us by seeing all the Natives uncover their shoulders, but as he could not with propriety come within the Fence we paid our respects to him on the Beach & gave him such Trinkets as we had then about us; he did not stay long but posted on to meet his father at the Morai. He was hardly gone, when we had also a short visit from his royal Sister, who was likewise on a man’s back. We ornamented her with Beads & gave her some looking glasses which seemd to please her much.
In the dusk of the evening a scene occurrd which did not fail to give a different turn to our feelings for then we were informed that the royal family were landing close by us, we hastend out to receive them & met Pomarre on the Beach, the dejection which evidently appeard in his countenance inducd me to at once enquire the cause of it, when he told me in a low tone of voice that his friend Motooaro- mahow was dead, & that he was come to Oparre to solemnize the

                                                                                                             
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funeral rites. Roopaia & Whytooa who likewise came both out to receive
their brother, on hearing this burst into tears & a melancholy gloom soon overspread the whole group present.
On going a little further we saw the Queen Mother & Whareede both in tears close to the Canoe where they landed: At this time Whareede was searching a small bundle for the Shark’s teeth the dreadful instrument used by the women in this country on such occasions for tearing their heads in a frantic manner to express the depth of their afflictive sorrow. She found these carefully wrapped up a piece of cloth & delivering one to her sister, they both retired back in silent grief into a neighbouring plantation & went to sit on a large Mat which on our return to the house we found spread for the purpose.

14th               Early in the morning of the 14th we were again favourd with a visit from Otoo & several others on their way to the Morai. We now found that the English Geese had been landed in our plantation on the preceding evening, which Pomarre had received from Captain Vancouver, so far were these animals enabled to distinguish our voices or dresses that they kept gaggling about that end of the house we were in & constantly shund the natives.
A little before breakfast time a large Canoe coverd with an awning came from the Westward & moved with a slow motion towards the Morai with the body of the deceased Chief. On observing this we expressed our wish to see Pomarre in order to obtain his leave to attend the ceremony when we were told that he was gone to the Morai & would have no objection to our being present. We therefore sat out attended by Whytooa & several others & on crossing a small river a little beyond                


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Roopaias house. We there saw sitting under a tree the Queen Mother,
Wharedee & the Widow of the deceased; all in tears & in the violence of their distracted grief wounding their heads with the sad weapons we saw them prepard with the preceeding evening & to facilitate the operation the widow had a spot shaved on the crown of her head from which the blood gushed freely, & it bore evident marks of the frequent repetitions of the instrument.           
As we were afraid our presence might give them some uneasiness we made our stay but very short, & hastend towards the Morai, where we found that the Priests had already begun to perform their exequies, but Pomarre Roopaia & others giving their silent assent to our coming forwards we movd quietly on through the group & seated ourselves among the Chiefs with as little obstruction the duties then going forward as in entring a Church in England after the service had begun.
Five Priests who sat before Pomarre appeard at this time to be chanting a kind of hymn with their faces turnd towards the young king, who sat on a man’s lap about ten yards off, & near him was held the bundle of white Cloth which emblematically containd the Eatooa.
The body of the deceased lay wrapped in red English Cloth under the awning of the Canoe, one end of which was hauld up upon the Beach close to the Morai & the other end was attended by one man up to his middle in the water.
These Priests continued chanting in concert for sometime, frequently modulating their voices & altering with great volubility, till at last they ended with a shrill squeak. But one of them who was perceived to be our friend Mowree & who on this occasion performed the office of

                                                                                                                            
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High Priest continued in a fervent prayer for about half an hour longer, in
which he was now & then joind by another with a very shrill voice. In this prayer Mowree sometimes appeard to be expostulating with the Deity in mentioning separately the different produce of the Island that still remaind in great plenty & yet Motooaro mahow was sufferd to die.
When the address was ended they all got up & walkd along shore followd by the Canoe to the entrance of the River, where the three ladies still remaind giving vent to their grief; which on seeing the Canoe they aid with a wild yell that piercd our very souls attended with the frantic operation of the Shark’s teeth till the blood flowd freely. The Canoe then enterd the river to go back to a Morai at the foot of the Mountain & we understood that the ceremonies to be there performd on the body of the deceased was of such a nature & required so much privacy that they would permit any of us to be present though it was earnestly requested. – As some alleviation to this disappointment Pomarre said that the next day we should be admitted to see the manner in which it was laid out, but he could not allow us to follow any further up the River, on which we parted.
As I strongly suspected that the Body of this Prince was now going to be embalmd I could not help lamenting that these restrictions deprivd me of the only opportunity I should ever have of seeing these Natives perform an operation from which I should probably have derived very useful instructions I again renewd my solicitations with Pomarre to permit me alone to accompany him but without success. We then returned to Whytooas house


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& agreed on going along shore about 4 miles further to see the Royal
residence of Pomarre which we found pleasantly situated near the seaside & consisted of two large houses, one of which was 16 yards long by 10 yards wide. Here a number of young girls entertaind us with a Heiva in the wanton manner of their country, at particular parts of this dance a fellow stopt in before the Girls who had a large Stamen & exposed it in a ludicrous manner to the no small amusement of the rest of the Natives but when we expressd our disgust at this fellows actions, the girls then went on & performd the part by exposing themselves below the waist. After distributing some Beads among these young actresses, we reurnd by a pleasant path through the plantation where we enjoyd a cool refreshing breeze, shaded from the sultry midday heat by a continued forest of Bread fruit trees & Cocoa Palms. We stopd at a Chiefs house where Whytooa had orderd dinner to be provided for us & where I must say we fared sumptuously on the produce of the country, after which we continued our journey & a little before night retird again at our friend’s house, & observd a number of fires kindled in this part of the district & people cooking victuals as if some great feast was preparing – We however fared as usual & after supper requested our worthy host to join us in a glass of grog to our friends in Britanee - to join us in the liquor he modestly refusd though he was exceedingly fond of it, observing that we had but little remaining for ourselves & that he would therefore drink to Britanee in a -

                                                                                                           
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bowl of Otaheitean Ava which he immediately orderd to be prepard for the        purpose & Mr.Broughton’s politeness & curiosity together went so far as to drink some of this bowl with his friend.

15th               Before daylight our friend Mowree paid us a visit in order to acquaint us that a restriction was laid on all Canoes in this part of Oparre on account of the funeral solemnities, in consequence of which he durst not launch his Canoe to carry us back to Matavai. We told him it was no hardship, as it was our intention to go back by land & soon after on requesting Whytooa to give us an early breakfast he likewise told us that fires were under a similar restriction, on which account he could not dress any at his own house, but would endeavour to get some for us on our journey - This being the case there was no alternative, we therefore set out from Whytooas house pretty early in the morning (impressd with a high sense of his hospitality & friendly good offices) & accompanied by himself his wife & several of the Natives. We were conducted by a pleasant level path through the Plantation shaded by abundance of the Bread Fruit Trees & on crossing the River where we parted with Pomarre the preceeding day, we requested to see the Morai in which Motooaro - mahow was laid & was soon put into a path which led to it, but few of the Natives would venture to go with us, & we had gone but a little way when a message from Whytooa called us back having then particularly explaind to him Pomarre’s promise to us yesterday, he after considerable hesitations orderd one man to         

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accompany us, & gave him particular directions.
While the rest of the party went with Whytooa, Mr.Broughton & myself followd this man who appeard exceedingly cautious & fearful every stop he went – we had not gone far when a solitary gloom prevaild – all the houses we passd were deserted – not a living creature was to be seen excepting a few dogs till we came to the Morai, where we found three men sitting in a small house who we supposd to be priests or guardians of the sacred place. These men interrogated our guide with a great earnestness, & afterward informd us that the body of the deceased was carried to the Morai where we had seen it yesterday & where Pomarre was at that time attending the ceremonies that were performing. Being thus disappointed in our expectations, we took a short view of the place in which we saw nothing – deserving of notice, except its wild gloomy & solitary situation being shaded with large trees & backd by high perpendicular & cavernd rocks, giving origin to several streams of water whose murmuring noise was no doubt favourable to lull the mind into fervent devotion in performing their religious rites.
We returnd  by a different path & did not travel above a Mile when we came up with the rest of the party at a place where our friend Whytooa had taken care to provide a good breakfast for us. In our route we passd Otoo’s present residence which consists of a middling sizd house with a large court before it, enclosd by Board Railings, & it would now seem that the restrictions on fires did not extend far beyond the King’s house as we were

                                                                                                             
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so soon after passing it accommodated with our breakfast, & that the assiduity of the Natives on the preceeding evening in dressing so much victuals was not for feasting but to guard against fasting.
Being this refreshd we soon after crossd One Tree Hill & arrivd at the British Encampment by dinner time followd by a numerous group of the natives who were constantly struggling who should be foremost in doing us little acts of kindness, such as carrying us over rivulets, easing us of any superfluous cloaths in the heat of the day or any other bundle we had to carry, and though our pockets and bundles containd small trinkets valuable to them, I must do their honesty justice to say that none were missed by any of us during the whole excursion.

17th               In the morning of the 17th two of the Natives were detected in stealing a hat out of one of the scuttles on board the Discovery & was immediately pursued by one of our boats who soon returnd with the Thieves & their booty, & as various petty thefts were committed both on shore & on board it was thought necessary that their punishment should be public & exemplary to deter others from committing offences that might perhaps be attended with more disagreeable consequences – For this purpose they were instantly conveyd on shore to the Tents under a guard of Marines where they were tied to a tree & and had their heads shaved & receivd a good flogging on their naked backs after which they were dismissd desiring them never to be seen again near the lines or the Vessels. This happened in the presence of Otoo King of the Island, several of the principal Chiefs & a numerous concourse of the Natives who all apppeard highly satisfied with our paucity         


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in not inflicting a severer punishment.
After this Capt Vancouver accompanied by Pomarre & others went in the Pinnace to Oparre where he visited the Toopapaoo on which Motooaro – mahow was laid in state & made some offerings at his shrine accompanied with a discharge of Musquetry & after taking a view of the Morai & other places returnd to the ship again in the evening. We now found that the Breach which the river lately made through the Beach had entirely filld up again of itself & the stream followd its old course towards the point.
In the forenoon I set out with one of the gentlemen to prosecute my researches further up the Valley & after passing a little beyond the reach of our excursion, the Natives pointed out to us some shadock trees on the right hand side of the valley in a very flourishing state; loaded at this time with plenty of fruit but none of them were ripe - They told us that they were planted here by Bane (Sir Joseph Banks) & from their size & apparent age we had no reason to doubt their assertion.   
We now continued our journey crossing the windings of the river pretty frequent & in the afternoon advanced as far as the uppermost habitations in the Valley where we found it necessary to take up our quarters for the night as we had very heavy rain in the evening. The four Natives we found here were remarkable friendly & hospitale & very assiduous in providing for our comfort & entertainment – They dressd a small Hog for us, which was killd by dimersion in the river, a method we had not before seen made use of & at night they amused  

                                                                                                            
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us with singing some pleasant airs under the direction of an old blind man who accompanied them with great exactness on a flute, the stanzas often- terminated with the words bue bue & the performance on the whole was by no means destitute of order & some degree of harmony, & the eager attention of the Natives during the whole time shewd that they relishd it with great delight, though to us it seemd more condusive  to inspire a kind of mournful gloominess than cheerfulness.

18th               Next morning we set off pretty early taking about a dozen of the Natives with us guides & to carry some provisions & as we now advanced we found the Valley became much narrower, being hemmd in on both sides by high steep craggy mountains, whose dark woody cliffs diffusd  a solitary gloom all around us & the continued murmurs of the stream reechoed from different Caverns stunnd our ears with its loud noise, that we could not hear one another without elevating our voices considerably – A number of little falls of water precipitated from the rocks here & there on each side; but on the left hand we passd a small beautiful cascade which fell  over a perpendicular rock composd of upright Columns of black Bassalts presenting a fluted surface of upwards of thirty yards high, these Columns were arranged parallel & of a pentagonal figure rarely exceeding fifteen inches in diameter, they consisted of joints of different lengths from one to twenty feet & upwards.
Of this rock the Natives told me that they formerly made their stone adzes.
A little beyond this the Valley became so confind that we could pursue it no


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further. Here the natives pointed out to us on the left hand side a high cliff from the top of which they said a path went up the Mountains, but this rock appeard to us inaccessible till we saw one of the Natives scramble up with great alertness & on gaining the summit he made a rope he had about his middle fast to a tree & threw the end of it down the rock by means of which the rest hauld themselves up one after another & we managd to mount by the same conveyance though I must say not without risques & difficulty – When in the morning we observd some of the Natives carefully fastening Ropes about their waists we could not guess what they were intended for till we came to this Rock & saw the use to which they were applied.
From the top of this rock we began our ascent by a very steep narrow path where we could only follow one another through thick woods & sometimes along the verge of precipices so hideous & full of danger that a slip or false step would in a moment prove of fatal consequences. At other times we crossd chasms & valleys with great labour & fatigue, in the bottom of these we frequently met with little spots planted with Taro particularly the large coarser kind & abundance of Bananas which our Conductors seemd to consider as common property, for they collected from these places as we went along the Vegetables which they intended for themselves & us in the Mountains. The Wood through which we passed was every where interspersed with strong thick fern & underwood of various kinds, but the Trees which composd it did not appear to be of any great dimensions. I collected a number of plants which I had not before seen by sending the Natives here & there off

                                                                                                           
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the path in different directions who brought to me branches of every plant they saw either in flower or fruit or seed.
We thus continued our progress up the Mountains till about two in the afternoon when we had gaind the summit of an elevated ridge & on the other side saw a deep large valley across which the Natives told us the path went, & at some instance on the opposite side they shewd us two small huts on a clear spot where they said they meant to put up for the night. We had already crossd so many of these Valleys that we were now quite disheartend & here threw ourselves down upon the ground almost exhausted with fatigue, while some of the Natives went on to kindle a fire & prepare these huts for our reception.
But suddenly a very heavy pour of rain came on which the Natives told us was likely to continue & swell the River that we could not get back again for two or three days – we were in a short time wet to the skin & to go to these damp huts & lay all night in this condition would not only be comfortable but in this climate might greatly endanger our constitutions, we therefore determind at once on returning back as fast as we could, & get down the valley before the River had gaind strength sufficient to detain us more especially as we had strict injunctions to be back on the following day at farthest as the Vessels were upon the point of Sailing. We sent after the Natives that had gone, to recall them, & began to descend under a pouring fall of heavy rain which rended our path so exceeding slippery that we were every moment in the utmost danger of sliding down the chasms or precipices dreadful to behold & frequently obliged to lower ourselves by ropes fastend to trees or held by the         


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Natives.
When we came to the River we found that it had already swelld so considerably & its stream rolld on with such impetuosity that in many places it was a very difficult task to cross it, & indeed we should never have been able to accomplish it had it not been for the dexterity activity & friendly aid of the Natives for though I generally went across between two of the stoutest of them yet we were more often thrown off over logs & carried down the stream for some distance before we could gain the opposite shore, & we had to cross it at least twenty times in the course of our return down the Valley, but it was some consolation to find that were in some Measure out run the overflow & lower down crossd it with more ease.
We arrivd at the Tents late in the evening extremely fatigued wet & uncomfortable but what I most regretted, my collection of plants were almost entirely destroyd with the heavy fall of the rain, our hurry down the Mountains & crossing the river so often, notwithstanding all my precautions & endeavours to preserve them.
This day the Queen Mother Wharedee & the others returnd from Oparre, after performing their part in the funeral rites, which after what has been already related will surely not be considerd as an easy task, it however left no traces of mournful gloominess on their minds, for they now appeard as cheerful & unconcernd as if nothing of the kind had ever happened.

                                                                                                           
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Notwithstanding the punishment that had been inflicted yesterday morning several petty thefts were still committing about the Tents amongst the officers Linnen & mens cloaths that were washing there, but no particular notice was taken of them. Indeed such was the rage for these articles as trade, that our own people were in some measure suspected as accessories in these petty offences, & to strengthen the bonds of good understanding & friendship between us & the Royal Family, the artificers were at this time employd in making a very large chest for Pomarre.

20th      In the morning of the 20th a bag of linen belonging to Mr.Broughton was missing it containd about a dozen shirtd some sheets & table Cloths that had been brought on shore on the preceeding evening & laid in the Marquee as the surest place, so that this theft was imputed to some of those confidentials who were permittd to live night & day within the lines & who were mostly chiefs of low rank – that had been adopted as temporary friends by some of the officers or men who attended upon these as menial servants - These certainly were hourly exposed to great temptations by the negligence with which every thing lay about the Tents especially shirts & linen of every kind that were daily brought on shore to wash & dry & indeed these were the articles which they were at this time fondest of from the highest to the lowest, so that it was not at all surprising that their honesty was not able to resist those aluring opportunities which we                        

                                                                                                                           
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ourselves put in their way.
On this occasion Captain Vancouver issued his threats to Pomarre & the rest of the Chiefs telling them, that if these articles were not brought back very soon, he would desolate the whole district & destroy all their Canoes.
In the forenoon Roopaia made a liberal present of Hogs Goats etc to both Commanders & was desirous of backing his present with an entertainment, for which two young ladies elegantly dressd were brought close to the lines to dance a Heiva, but this Capt. Vancouver did not think proper to countenance on account of the several thefts committed by the Natives, & he strictly enjoind that none belonging to either of the Vessels should attend it, so that the Ladies returnd home without performing even to their own countrymen, & Roopaia went off apparently much hurt at this rebuff, for a little afterwards I strolld back into the Plantation & saw him with his musquet in great agitation & bustle through the village searching for the Thieves.
The Observatory was struck & the Astronomical instruments & Time-keepers were sent on board. There being little or no surf the Boats were now able to land with great ease abreast of the Tents.
The Centinels posted round the encampment this day receivd orders to fire on any of the Natives that might be found stealing or lurking within the lines after the watch was set, in consequences of which two of them were this night fired at but they affected their escape unhurt.

                                                                                                              
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In the forenoon of the 21st Pomarre & two of his brothers with several of the Chiefs were at the Tents about the robberies, when they were again threatend with war & destruction, But to no purpose, for they declard that they had already exerted their utmost endeavours to find out the offenders & recover the articles, but that the thieves were gone with their booty to the Mountains, where they could easily elude the most diligent search for a considerable time. To assuage in some measure these threats & endeavours to bring about again a good – understanding Pomarre & Whytooa made presents of the produce of the Island to both Commanders.
In the evening Whytooa meeting with a man that attended on the Officers who had absconded himself in the course of the day I believe merely through fear of the thundering threats that were issued, brought him to the Tents to declare whatever he knew concerning the robereies & the harsh manner in which this man was threatened with instant death gave  a general alarm to the Natives, they were seen deserting their houses & getting all their effects & canoes out of the reach of our guns. Pomarre & all the Chiefs instantly crossd the river & absconded themselves, not one remained near us except the old Queen & a single attendant & she appeard stupefied with liquor, having taken a glass too much, which was not uusual with this Royal Dame when she could get it.
In this situation Mr.Broughton went singly & remaind across the river (though Capt.Vancouver had entreated him to the contrary) to endeavour to reconcile the Natives & bring


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them back to a state of confidence which he very soon affected by overtaking     Pomarre & soliciting him to return again to the Tents, that chief said what can I expect, when my Queen is kept a Prisoner, he assurd him she was not, & to convince him there was no harm intended against any of them, he desird him to come to the river side & that she should be sent over to him which she immedately went according to Mr.Broughton’s promise & a numerous group of Natives eagerly receivd her on the opposite side.
On this occasion Pomarre shewd great magnanimity, for the whole multitude zealously pressd him not to venture across & clingd around him endeavouring to hold him back, yet the moment he saw the Queen set at liberty he thrust them all aside & steppd into the river with an undaunted air of confidence followd by Wharedee alone, & the Queen joining them soon after he slepd with both in the Marquee all night.
During this fray Captain Vancouver sent to seize some double Canoes laying at the entrance of the River, but the party was prevented from getting more than one by the Natives pelting them with stones & one or two Musquets they had would not go off which made others bolder in defending their property.
In the mean time the man which Whytooa had brought & who had given rise to this sudden alarm was sent on board & secured in irons till his guilt should appear more evident, or he should incriminate others by telling whatever

                                                                                                            
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he knew of the robberies. In the night time Toowerero the Sandwich Islander made his escape by swimming on shore unobserved – This step was not altogether unexpected as he had given some hints a few days before of his partiality to these people & their country by expressing his wishes to remain amongst them, for their insinuating arts & manners had gaind such an ascendancy over his unthinking mind, that they had already wheedled from him almost the whole stock of Cloaths which Government had so liberally supplied him with on his leaving England.

22nd               When this affair was made known to Capt Vancouver next morning he immediately - requested Pomarre to send after him & bring him back to the ship again wherever he was, & that Chief instantly set off in search of him.
In the meantime the Guns were dismounted & sent off in the Tents & in the Afternoon the Marquee was struck with which the whole party returnd on board. Whytooa being at this time at the encampment venturd off with Capt Vancouver which made us put more confidence in Pomarre’s success after Toowerero who we were told in the evening was securd at Opare & would be brought to the Ship very soon.

22nd               In the morning of the 23rd, it raind very hard but it brought no surf or swell into the Bay like the former wet weather. At daylight the Chatham parted her stream Cable which had been evidently cut by the rock. Though we were now ready to depart yet we could have wishd to see Pomarre & his brother who were both at Oparre inquest of Toowerero. About


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(illegible)….the three Royal dames came on board & told Capt Vancouver that if a Boat was sent for them they would both come on Board with Toowerero, & that he might not doubt their assertion they immediately offerd to remain on board the Ship as hostages till the Boat returnd joculously adding that if Pomarre would not come for them they would go to Britanee & get other husbands.
As the weather was not very favourable for our departure Mr.Broughton & I went in the Pinnace to Oparre & landed, a little after we passd One Tree Hill where we found Pomare waiting for us on the each & Toowerero close by him surrounded by a group of the Natives who appeard much concernd at parting with him. On walking a little further we found Roopaia in a house taking some refreshments.
Mr.Broughton orderd Toowerero into the Boat who was at this time dressd in a Man in the manner of Otaheite & we afterwards prevaild on Pomarre & his Brother to accompany us back to the ship & no sooner set off than we were followd by a vast number of Canoes loaded with Hogs & vegetables which were intended as presents from Pomarre to both Vessels. He drew them up into two regular divisions upon each quarter of the Boat & in this manner we enterd the Bay & approached the Vessels till by a signal given they separated off one division to each vessel.
We arrivd on board about two in the afternoon when Toowerero was immediately confind to prevent his making his escape again. We have already mentiond that he was so impudent as to part with all of his wearing

 

                                                                                                               
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apparel, but what he himself most regretted was the loss of an excellent rifle barreld musquet which had been given him by Col. Gordon at the Cape of Good Hope, & on which he placed so high a value that he would not trust it on shore with any of the Natives as he did his cloaths, but carried it out of the ship himself & lost it in the Surf as he was swimming to the shore.
If we seriously consider the inducements which led him to this step, his conduct will no doubt appear less blameable, for he frequently expressd his doubt whether any of his friends & relations would be alive at Morotai on his return; and being born of obscure rank he was equally apprehensive that his reception in his own country would not be so flattering as here. It is not therefore surprising if under these circumstances he preferd an easy life in a climate so congenial to his own where he found himself caressd by people of rank from the Royal Family downwards, enticing him with every allurement to remain amongst them; & the facility of gratifying every wish had endeard their habits & manners to him, for being a Child of Nature the love had in some measure captivated his heart with their unaffected charms & given him a relish for sensual pleasures that he had not before experienced In short in a country where nature dealt her bounties with such a lavishing hand among a mild happy people he no doubt anticipated the remainder of his days in a continual round of various enjoyments.
For he himself avowd that both Pomare & Rupaia strongly importund him to stay behind


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& that the latter assisted him in landing & afterwards conducted him secretly to the Mountains, though both of them declard they had no knowledge of his escape & made great merit of bringing him back, Yet we had doubt of its being a premeditated plan between them & therefore could not help thinking that the punishment Toowerero sufferd for his imprudence, for in him it could scarcely be calld any more, was far too severe, for he was kept in confinement till we past the Island of Tooteroah & the Captain in a manner discarding him, he was thrown out of the Gunners Mess where he had livd since we left England, so that he was obligd to to make it out the best way he could among the common people all the passage to the Sandwich Island, with scarcely any clothing except what the generous pity of his Shipmates supplied him with.

                   As we were now ready to leave these Island, it will perhaps be necessary to add a few words on their present state & the changes which have taken place in their Government since Capt. Cook’s last visit.
Pomarre who was then namd Otoo & King of Otaheite as has been already noticd still retains the power of administering the government of the Island, though consonant to the established custom of the Country he has resignd the titles & honors of a Sovereign to his son Otoo who is now considerd as the King of Otaheite & indeed a much greater prince than his father ever was.
Waheiadooa, the King of Tiaraboo is dead & Pomarre’s second son had assumd his name & titles & taken possession of his territories a short time before our arrival.
The powerful Maheine King of Eimeo was killd in a Battle about 18 months ago in Otaheite

                                                                                                             
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and was succeeded by his Brother Motooaro mahow whose death we have already mentiond & the Sovereignty of that Island is now left to his daughter Tetooanooe who is very young & under age.
The great Opoona King of Bolabola is also dead & succeeded by his daughter Mahemarooa who is present sovereign of that Island & also under age.
We have already mentiond Motooara the present King of Huaheine & our friend Old Mouree the King of Ulietea, the later is an uncle of Pomarre’s by the mother’s side & has no issue, so that his Territory is likely to fall soon by descent under the Government of the Otaheitian Family whose present extensive & political views will no doubt also join two other Islands by the Marriage of the Otaheitean King with two of the Queens of Bolabola & Eimeo, so that this young prince is likely in a short time to to have the entire control of the whole group of Islands & indeed his father & the rest of the Chiefs frequently told us that his titles are greater than any King that ever reignd in Otaheite. He is stiled the Earee’ rapie no marooora a title to which they seem to annex the same idea of greatness as we do to that of an Emperor’s by this it should seem that his elevation to the Government of the whole group of Islands is already considerd inevitable.
Pomarre is at present about 6 feet 5 inches high, very muscular & well proportiond, he walks firm & erect with that majestic dignity of deportment becoming his high rank & station
Those on board who have seen him formerly say that he is much improvd in every respect not only in his personal appearance but in


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the firmness & steadiness of his actions & general behaviour.
The Queen Mother as we calld her was a stout woman of an erect masculine figure with very ordinary features, but she walkd with a firm easy step & her disposition was mild & affable. She also appeard to possess great sagacity & penetration aided by a quick & clear comprehension of whatever was laid before her, so that she was not only usefull to Pomarre in his domestic concerns, but even in the management of the more important affairs of Government, for her councel had great weight with him on all occasions, & he seldom transacted any business of moment without first obtaining it, by which she always seemd to have great ascendancy & influence over his conduct.    
While her sister Wharedee who though inclind to corpulency posessd more feminine softness & the characteristic allurements of her sex attracted more of his company in those hours of relaxation devoted to pleasure & mutual enjoyment.

 

                                                                                                             
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24th               Though the preceeding night was rainy yet the morning of the 24th of Jan was fair with a light easterly breeze, when we Unmoord & by 10 in the forenoon both Vessels weighd Anchor & made sail out of the Bay. At this time the Native who had been confind about three days ago on account of the Robbery was brought on Deck & deliverd to Pomarre which seemd highly gratifying to him & the royal dames one of whom immediately hurried him into a Canoe that was along side & hid him in the bottom of it by placing herself over him & covering him with her cloaths, when she orderd the people to paddle off as fast as they could towards the shore, & having got him a good distance off she returnd in another canoe to the ship again. Though we were not able to recover but very few of the articles which the Natives pilferd from us yet all animosity now ceasd & we parted upon the most friendly terms. Pomarre was the last man on board & as he stepd into his Canoe he was saluted with four Guns & a similar compliment was paid to his two brothers who were at the same time on board the Chatham taking leave of Mr.Broughton & the Officers.
At noon we got off about two leagues when we steerd to the Northward with a light breeze & clear weather & in the evening were within two leagues of the Island of Tooteroah bearing about North of us when the wind died away to light airs with lightning & some rain during the nights.

25th               The forenoon of the 25th was fair but mostly calm so that our progress was hardly perceptible & being


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within 4 or 5 miles of Tooteroah it gave an opportunity to some Canoes to come off to us, in one of which was a Chief & his family who came on board & who was not unacquainted with many of our recent transactions, which shews that a regular communication is kept up between the two Islands.
In the afternoon finding that we were drifting nearer the Island by a  Current, the Boats were hoisted out to tow the Ship off, but in the evening a light breeze sprang up, when the Boats were hoisted in again & we were enabled to pursue our northerly course.
The Chatham who was during this time much nearer the land was surrounded by several Canoes from which they procurd Fowls and Cocoa Nuts being probably the only refreshments which the Island afforded for it producd neither Bread Fruit nor Taro, both of which they are supplied at times with from Otaheie.
The Chatham was also visited by the head Chief of the Island who is a younger brother of Pomarre & it being a Colony of Otaheite the Inhabitants esteemd the same articles of trafic.
The greatest extent of the Island from North to South did not exceed three Miles & it is so remarkably low that the Cocoa Nut Palms with which it is coverd seem as if they were emerging from the Ocean. At one time we were surrounded by a vast shoul of Porpusses basking & swimming about at their ease.

26th               Next day a light breeze still continued from the Eastward with which however we soon lost sight of the Island of Tooteroah but Otaheite was seen very plain & at six in the evening bore S13E about 20 Leagues off Eimeo at the same

                                                                                                             
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time South. The two following days though the weather continued fine & clear was still more unfavourable to our progress as the wind blew in very light airs with long intervals of Calm. On the latter of these the Powder was got out of the Magazine & rolled about on deck to prevent the saline parts of it from decomposing, which is apt to take place in a long state of rest.                                       
A small species of Tern that perchd in our rigging was caught from which I have taken the following description....

   
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